A short list of key articles on Alexithymia


Principal references

The best summary of the concepts, research and measurement can be found in most academic libraries:

Taylor, G. J., & Bagby, R. M. (2000) "An overview of the alexithymia construct", in ed. R. Bar-On & J. D. A. Parker, The Handbook of Emotional Intelligence, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc., Ch.3, pp.41-67.

The most comprehensive resource is:

Taylor, G. J., Bagby, R. M., & Parker, J. D. A. (1997) Disorders of Affect Regulation: Alexithymia in medical and psychiatric illness, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

The best explanation of the original concept can be found only in specialised medical libraries:

Nemiah, J. C., Freyberger, H., & Sifneos, P. E. (1976) "Alexithymia: A view of the psychosomatic process", in ed. O. W. Hill, Modern Trends in Psychosomatic Medicine, London: Butterworths, pp.430-439.

Specialised references

The concept of Alexithymia

Apfel, R. J. & Sifneos, P. E. (1979) "Alexithymia: concept and measurement", Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 32, 180-90.

Berenbaum, H. & Prince, J. D. (1994) "Alexithymia: Alexithymia and the interpretation of emotion-relevant information", Cognition and Emotion, 8, 231-44.

Borens, R., Grosse-Schulte, E., Jaensch, W., & Kortemme, K. H. (1977) "Is 'alexithymia' but a social phenomenon? An empirical investigation in psychosomatic patients", Psychotherapy and psychosomatics, 28, 193-8.

Newton, L. T., & Contrada, R. J. (1994) "Alexithymia and repression: contrasting emotion-focused coping styles", Psychosomatic Medicine, 56, 457-62.

Salimen, J. K., Saarijärvi, S., Äärelä, E., & Tamminen, T. (1994) "Alexithymia-state or trait? One-year followup study of general hospital psychiatric consultation outpatients", Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 38, 681-5.

Sifneos, P. E. (1973) "The prevalence of 'alexithymic' characteristics in psychosomatic patients", Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 22, 255-62.

Wise, T. N., Mann, L. S., Mitcheell, J. D. Hryvniak, M., & Hill, B. (1990) "Secondary alexithymia: An empirical validation", Comprehensive Psychiatry, 31, 284-8.

Relationship to other traits and disorders

Bourke, M. P., Taylor, G. J., Parker J. D. A., & Bagby, R. M. (1992) "Alexithymia in women with anorexia nervosa", British Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 240-243.

Deary, I. J., Scott, S., & Wilson, J. A. (1997) "Neuroticism, alexithymia and medically unexplained symptoms", Personality and individual differences, 22, 551-564.

Hyer, L. A., Woods, M. G., Summers, M. N. & Boudewyns, P. A. (1990) "Alexithymia among Vietnam veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder", Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 51, 243-247.

Lane, R. D., Sechrest, L., Reidel, R. Weldon, V., Kazniak, A., & Schwartz, G. E. (1996) "Impaired verbal and nonverbal emotion recognition in alexithymia", Psychosomatic Medicine, 58, 203-210.

Lane, R. D., Sechrect, L., & Reidel, R. (1998) "Sociodemographic correlates of alexithymia", Comprehensive Psychiatry, 39, 377-385.

McDonald, P. W. & Prkachin, K. M. (1990) "The expression and perception of facial emotion in alexithymia: A pilot study", Psychosomatic Medicine, 52, 199-210.

Parker, J. D. A., Taylor, B. J., & Bagby, R. M. (1993) "Alexithymia and the recognition of facial expressions of emotion", Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 59, 197-202.


Bach, M., Bach, D., & de Zwaan, M. (1996) "Independency of alexithymia and somatization", Psychosomatics, 37, 451-458.

Jimerson, D. C., Wolfe, B. E., Frankpoo, D. L., Covino, N. A., & Sifneos, P. E. (1994) "Alexithymia ratings in bulimia nervosa: Clinical correlates", Psychosomatic Medicine, 56, 90-93.

Lesser, I. M., Ford, C. V., & Friedmann, C. T. H. (1979) "Alexithymia in somatizing patients", General Hospital Psychiatry, 1, 256-261.

Martin, J. B., & Pihl, R. (1985) "The stress-alexithymia hypothesis: Theoretical and empirical considerations", Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 43, 169-176.

Martin, J. B., and Pihl, R. (1986) "Influence of alexithymic characteristics on physiological and subjective stress response in normal individuals", Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 45, 66-77.

Papciak, A. S., Feurestein, M., & Speigel, J. A. (1985) "Stress reactivity in alexithymia: Decoupling of physiological and cognitive responses", Journal of Human Stress, 11, 135-142.

Wehmer, F., Brejnak, C., Lumley, M. & Stettner, L. (1995) "Alexithymia and physiological reactivity to emotion-provoking visual scenes", Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 183, 351-357.

Neurology of alexithymia

Buchanan, D. C., Waterhouse, G. J., & West, S. C. (1980) "A proposed neurophysiological basis of alexithymia", Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 34, 284-55.

Jessimer, M., & Matkham, R. (1997) "Alexithymia: A right hemisphere dysfunction specific to recognition of certain facial expressions?", Brain and Cognition, 34, 246-258.

Lane, R. D., Ahern, G. L., Schwartz, G. E., & Kasniak, A. W. (1997) "Is alexithymia the emotional equivalent of blindsight?", Biological Psychiatry, 42, 834-844.

Assessment and measurement

Bagby, R. M., Parker, J. D. A, & Taylor, G. J. (1994) "The Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale: I, Item selection and cross-validation of the factor structure", Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 38, 23-32.

Bagby, R. M., Taylor, G. J., & Parker, J. D. A. (1994) "The Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale: II, Convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validity", Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 38, 33-40.

Keltikangas-Järvinen, J. (1987) "Concept of alexithymia: II, The consistency of alexithymia", Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 47, 113-120.

Gardos, G. Schniebolk, S., Mirin, S. M., Wolk, P. C., & Rosenthal, K. (1994) "Alexithymia: Towards validation and measurement", Comprehensive Psychiatry, 25, 278-282.

Sriram, T. G., Pratap, L., & Shanmugam, V. (1988) "Towards enhancing the utility of the Beth Israel Hospital Psychosomatic Questionnaire", Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 49, 205-211.

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